Week 9


This week we discussed the sometimes controversial topic of Copyright and Property. Copyright is a legal concept, that is enacted by most governments, allowing the creator of an original work to have exclusive rights to that work. Often for a limited time. it refers to the ‘right to copy’ and gives copyright holders the right to be credited for the work. It can also determine who may adapt the work, who may preform the work, who may financially benefit from it and other related rights. It is known as a form of ‘intellectual property’. 

Derivative work= an expressive creation that includes major copyright protected elements of an original, previously created first work

The Derivative work = the 2nd, separate work independent from the 1st.

The transformation, modification or adaption of the work, must be substantial and bear its authors personality to be original and thus protected by copyright. Translations, cinematic adaptions and musical arrangements are common types of derivative works. It is protectable only to an extent that it embodies original expression. Its un-original aspects are not copyright protectable.

Some well known stories of Copyright are:

  • Colmcille & Finnian
  • Dracula & Nosferatu
  • Billy Bragg & Myspace
  • Kim.com
  • The Pirate Bay


Fair Use:

This is a restriction to the right that is given to the author of a creative work. Some examples are news reporting, research, teaching, library archiving and scholarship.It allows for the legal inclusion of copyrighted material in another authors work.

Public Domain

Is when a piece of works copyright has expired, been forfeited or are inapplicable. Ex: Shakespeare.

Privacy Vs Freedom of Expression.

The right to privacy can often interfere or conflict with the Right to Free Expression. When it comes to photograph or recording, generally it is allowed in public in democratic societies, and anyone can photograph on public ground. Once on private property they can be then restricted.


A creative commons is keeping a content directory wiki of organisations and projects using the Creative Commons Licenses. Also shows previous examples of case studies of projects using Creative Commons licenses all over the world.

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a copyright law introduced by the United States that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent DRM measures that control access to copyrighted works.

Content-Scrambling System is used by commercial DVD makers to encrypt copyrighted movie content.

Important figures/organisations involved in Privacy/Copyright:

Aaron Schwartz the founder of Demand Progress, that launched a campaign to stop the Internet censorship bills (SOPA/PIPA).

Lawrence Lessig is a academic and political activist. He is a advocate of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology applications, and he has called for state-based activism to promote substantive reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention.(Wikipedia)

IMRO: Irish Music Rights Organisation who want to ensure that the creators of the music a rightly accredited for their work.

IVARO: The Irish Visual Arts Rights Organisation which is about getting the protection and promotion of the copyright of visual artists and their heirs.

(son of) Citation Machine: which is a tool to help people formulate a perfect APA style reference/citation for a piece of work.





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