This week we in class we covered the media of Photography. In this class topics such as Aperture, Depth of field, Shutter speed, ISO and Reciprocity where explained. We also covered composition and different styles of photography, such as pinhole, tilt shift and Lomo.
The opening or window where light passes into the camera is called the aperture. It is measure in f-stops. The higher the number of f-stops the deeper the ‘depth of focus’ in an image is. An aperture’s ‘focal depth’ is usually referred to as the ‘Depth of Field‘ or DOF.
- The smaller the aperture, the greater the focal depth. If you close down the aperture you get more of a scene in focus. This would mean a higher f-stop.
- The larger the aperture the shallower the depth of field. If you open the aperture you can isolate objects for focus. This would use a lower f-stop.
- The aperture opens or closes an image, which makes it become lighter or darker. Shutter speed can be used to compensate for this.
The shutter in a camera blocks light from entering the camera through the lens. You can control this though, by temporarily releasing the shutter it will allow light into the camera to expose an image. The amount of time the shutter stays open determines how much light can enter the camera.
- Short exposure, means less light, therefore given the image more detail. While longer exposure, allows more light giving the image less detail.
- Also, with a faster shutter speed means you can capture faster movement in images. If the shutter speed is very fast, you can capture individual droplets of water spray.
- Slow shutter speed allows you to capture motion blur of individual objects, while the most still parts of the image stay clear.
Depth of Field:
Depth of field can be used to isolate certain details in an image, to make them stand out. With Macro mode you can use it to create very shallow DOF.
a setting on film-cameras and film stock. The film stock was matched to a certain type of ideal usage. for example, ISO 100-400 was ideal for still life and ISO 1600 was for movement).
Digital cameras still produce this effect, by using the ISO to tell the camera what sort of image to expect.
This is the understanding that both the duration of exposure to light and the intensity of the light have a relationship which decides the effective exposure of images.
When it comes to Composition, a well-taken photograph usually has a clear subject of focus. Isolating your subject from other objects within a scene, you may need to move camera position or zoom. It is also important to consider the background. (Too much clutter? softer? reduce depth of field?)
In the class, we also learnt about some of the different types of photography, such as Pin Hole, Bokeh, which used photographing light flares and blurs in an unusual way but created a an unusual image at the end. Also Lomo, which uses special film cameras to create highly saturated effects, although this is now becoming easier and more common with the likes of filters on some phones and apps such as Instagram. Tilt shift, which required a special lens until recently to achieve its dioramic effect of making real spaces and people look like miniature models.
Photography is something that I am quite interested in, so I found this week very beneficial and learnt a lot. I was looking forward to start using my camera and play around with the settings, and ISO and f-stops and see what images I would I get. I’ll leave you with a checklist that my lecturer has compiled for when you are taking a photo.
Our task for the week was to take a before and after image on campus showing our understanding of the use of Aperture. As I only had my iPhone 4, which doesn’t have the best camera, I was unable to take a good photograph on campus, but when I got home, I was able to use my Canon EOS 100D camera, and these are the photos I took.